HISTORY

Terrible Tommys thought for today from our comrade in Europe.

Dear Terrible Tommy,

Whenever someone wants to tell a new idea to the big masses, he must not tell it seven times but seventy seven times until they will recognize it and even if, only a small amount of them will remember it the very next day. I remember as I tried to tell some people the difference of National Socialism and Fascism. No chance, absolutely no chance. So today we cannot judge AH in terms of true and wrong; good and evil and so on. He had to work with the most primitive slogans or nobody would have noticed him. The Jewish product managers of today know this fact very well. All people know a new product even before it is available in the shops today. And all that "Nationalistically" Germans which refuse to fight together with Aryans of other Nations I want to show this excerpt:

It is from: http://www.wcotc.com/books/whitehistory/index.htm Chapter 64

The Waffen-SS was also the foremost indicator of the popularity of Nazism beyond the borders of Germany: it is a little known fact that of the one million men who served in the Waffen-SS during the course of the war, 60 per cent - 600,000 men - were volunteers from countries outside of Germany. Ethnic Germans were in fact a minority of the Waffen-SS, a fact often forgotten. Non-German volunteers came from the Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, France, Denmark, Norway, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Ukraine, Byelorussia, Spain, Italy, Hungary, Yugoslavia and even a very small group of British volunteers, known as the Legion of St. George. The foreign Waffen-SS units were all deployed on the Eastern Front for two reasons: firstly they had specifically volunteered to fight Communism; and secondly so that they would never be asked to fight fellow countrymen in their native countries. All but a few thousand of the 20,000 French Waffen-SS volunteers, organized into a division called Legion Charlemagne, were killed in the Battle of Berlin in 1945. PS.: I do not know very much about the conflict in Northern Ireland but we cannot abandon such a great Aryan reservoir. At least please stop to kill the children of your "enemies".




The Johnson Family: African-American Owners of White and Black Slaves - Part 1

By Robert M. Grooms

On April 10, 1606 the Virginia Company of London was granted a royal charter by King James I, awarding it a large tract of land in present day Virginia, Delaware and Maryland. 1 On May 13, 1607 three small ships, Susan Constant, Godspeed and Discovery, arrived at Cape Henry, sailed up the James River, and landed at present-day Jamestown ("James Towne"). Following a 131-day voyage crowded in damp, cold, foul smelling holds in the darkness beneath the decks, 104 settlers, including twelve servants, disembarked and established a rough log fortress. 2 On land, the settlers faced a new round of trials: bad weather, short supplies, hostile Indians, inadequate and rotting foodstuffs. In one settler's words, the first months were filled with "endless and cruel discomfort." As the colonists were locked behind the log walls of their fortress, terrified by the attacking natives, rationed "to half a pint of wheat and half a pint of wormy barley boiled in water per day," sickness struck: "Scares ten amongst us could either go or well stand; such extreme weakness and sickness oppressed us," one settler wrote in obvious despair. Finally, with their food almost gone, on September 10, Captain Newport sailed back to England for help, leaving fifty surviving settlers to build the first permanent settlement in North America. 3 Of the more than 800 colonists sent over during the colony's first three years, only about sixty survived death at the hands of the Indians or disease. Though some L$80,000 had been spent by the Virginia Company's stockholders in twelve years, the Company in 1619 was in debt L$8000, and only 400 of the nearly 2,000 colonists sent to the colony had survived starvation, disease and repeated Indian attack. 4 In August 1619, more than a year before the landing of the ship Mayflower, a captured Dutch man-of-war, with a Spanish captain name Jope and an English pilot named Marmaduke, anchored in the James River near Jamestown. On board were "20 and odd" men and women of African descent. The Virginia colony was in need of laborers, while the captain and his crew were in need of supplies. A bargain was struck and twenty Negroes, the first of their race in the colonies, were sold to the colonists, fresh food and water was brought aboard, and the ship sailed away. Some of the blacks had English names (Edward, Mary, John) and others sonorous Spanish names (Antonio, Angeleo, Pedro, Anthony and Isabella). They did not have surnames. By their Christian names it is apparent that the Negroes had not come direct from Africa, but where they were from, like the name of the ship they arrived on, has been lost to history. 5 According to the African-American Chairman of President William Clinton's Commission on Race, Duke University professor John Hope Franklin:

These newcomers, who happened to be black, were simply more indentured servants. They were listed in the census counts of 1623 and 1624; and as late as 1651, Negroes whose period of service had expired were also being assigned land much the same way that it was being assigned to whites who had completed their indenture. During the first-half century of existence Virginia had many Negroes as servants; and the record reveals an increasing numbers of free Negroes. 6

Franklin wrongly designated the first twenty Negroes in the colonies as indentured servants, instead of redemptioners. Indentured servants, in return for paying the cost of their passage to the New World, entered into a written contract while still in Europe to work for a specified owner, for a specified number of years, under determined conditions. The term indentured servant was a part of English Common Law, which was borrowed from an ancient custom of tearing or ripping a contract written on parchment into two parts, one-half going to the servant and the other half to the master, which, when fitted back together, proved authenticity. 7 According to Webster's II New Riverside University Dictionary (1984), "slavery" is defined as "Bondage to a master or household." The length of the bound servitude, be it an extendable set number of years or durante vite (servitude for life) has no bearing on whether an individual is deemed a slave. The vast majority of whites and all blacks arrived in the colonies as redemptioners. They were generally of the underclass, including orphans, who were rounded up (often involuntarily) while still in their native country and transported to the New World. Whites were frequently transported in the same ships that were used for Africans. One redemptioner who came to American in 1750 recalled his trip with horror: "To keep from starving, we had to eat rats and mice. We paid from eight pence to two shilling for a mouse, four pence for a quart of water." Passengers were often packed like herrings in a box. Unsanitary conditions prevailed. According to the memoir of a German Palstinate:

There is on board these ships terrible misery, stench, fumes, horror, vomiting, many kinds of sea-sickness, fever, dysentery, headache, heat, constipation, boils, scurvy, mouth rot, and the like, all of which come from old and sharply salted food and from the very bad and foul water, so that many die miserable...Add to this want of provisions, hunger, thirst, frost, heat, dampness, anxiety, want, afflictions, and lamentations, together with other trouble, as e.g., the lice abound so on the sick people, that they can be scraped off the body. The misery reaches a climax when a gale rages for two or three nights so that everyone believes that the ship will go to the bottom with all the human beings on board. In such a visitation the people cry and pray most piteously.

The hardships of the white slaves did not end if they were fortunate enough to survive the long, onerous voyage. Gittlieb Mittelburger in, Journey to Pennsylvania, recorded in 1750 that: When the ships lands at Philadelphia after their long voyage, no one is permitted to leave them except those who pay for their passage or can give good security; the others, who cannot pay, must remain onboard the ships till they are purchased and are released from the ships by the purchasers. The sick always fare the worst, for the healthy are naturally preferred and purchased first; and so the sick and wretched must often remain on board in front of the city for two or three weeks, and frequently die, whereas many a one, if he could pay his debt and were permitted to leave the ship immediately, might recover and remain alive. The sale of human beings at the market on board the ship is carried on thus: Every day Englishmen, Dutchmen, and High German people come from the city of Philadelphia and other places in part from a great distance, say twenty, thirty, or forty hours away, and go on board the newly-arrived ship that has brought and offers for sale passengers from Europe, and select among the healthy persons such as they deem suitable for their business ... One of the great criticisms leveled at the Redemptioner System was that it led to the breakup of families. Husbands and wives were sold to different masters, and parents frequently were forced to sell their children. Children and young people were in great demand, as they could be purchased for a longer term than adults. As children under age eight traveled for half fare, their sale was more profitable to the ship captain. According to Mittelberger:

Many parents must sell and trade away their children like so many head of cattle, for if their children take the debt upon themselves, the parents can leave the ship free and unrestrained; but as the parents often do not know where and to what people their children are going, it often happens that such parents and children, after leaving the ship, do not see each other again for many years, perhaps no more in all their lives. 8

Footnotes:

01. King James I is also known for authorizing the English translation of the Christian Bible, published in 1611. King James I, in 1624, revoked the Virginia Company Charter, and Virginia became a Crown Colony.

02. Hume, Ivor H. Martin's, Hundred (Knopf, 1982), 27; Robertson, Pat. American's Dates with Destiny (Thomas Nelson, 1986), 29-34.

03. Ballagh, James C., White Servitude in the Colony of Virginia (Burt Franklin, 1895; reprinted 1969), 15.

04. Ibid., 14.

05. Logan, Raymond W. and Irving S. Cohen. The American Negro (Houghton, Mifflin, 1970), 1; Benett, Lerone, Jr., Before the Mayflower: A History of Black America (Johnson Pub., 1987), pp. 28-29, 621.

06. Franklin, John Hope, From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 4th ed. (Knopf, 1974), 56.

07. Logan, ibid., 40.

08. Morris, Richard B., Government And Labor In Early America (Octagon Books, 1946; reprint, 1965), passim; Evertt, Susanne, History of Slavery (Brompton Books, 1991; reprinted Chartwell Books, 1993), passim.

(See Part 2 in the October 2001 issue)




The Johnson Family: African-American Owners Of White And Black Slaves - Part 2 of 2

By Robert M. Grooms

A servant might be transported to the New World at a cost of from 6 to 8 Pounds and sold for 40 to 60 Pounds, and a systematic speculation in servants was begun in both England and in the colonies.9 Those not sold in port cities were chained together, marched inland, and auctioned off. Their terms of servitude (set by the individual colony legislature) were generally longer than those agreed to by indentured servants, and the conditions they served under were much harsher. They could be given away, traded, sold, passed on in wills, and used as collateral for loans, as any other property.10

White and black servants joined the same households - working, eating, sleeping and running away together. Their terms of service could be extended for a large number of minor offenses, including marrying or having children without permission. As a result of extensions, many white redemptioners served their whole life as a "servant." A child born to a female redemptioner could become the property of her owner and the mother's term extended. For example, George Cummins had the indenture of his white servant woman named Christian Finney extended by a year and her child bound for thirty-one years by order of the Carteret County Count on December 7, 1736. When she applied to the court for her freedom on June 9, 1744, the court ruled that she serve another five months to pay for the cost incurred by her owner to bring the earlier action. When she applied again 6 months later, she was ordered to serve an additional year for having a "Mulatto Child in the time of her servitude."11 Before 1643 servants without indentures generally became freemen after a term of service varying from two to eight years. After 1643, the terms of servants "brought into the colony without indentures or covenants to testify to their agreement" were fixed at four to seven years, the period varying somewhat with the age of the servant. It was the custom and later the law that a redemptioner, white or black, received from his master at the time of his discharge a certain amount of property called "freedom dues." In 1660 Virginia custom was to give each new freeman "3 barrels of corn and suit of clothes."12

The Johnson Family

Included with the twenty Africans who arrived in 1619 was a male noted in early records simply as "Antonio, a Negro" and a female designated as "Mary, a Negro." The general-muster rolls of 1624-25 – when there were twenty three blacks in the colony who constituted about two percent of the total population of 1,227 – lists both Antonio and Mary as being "servants," a designation shared by nearly half the whites. Twenty-five years later Antonio had become Anthony, he had married Mary, and the couple had taken the surname Johnson. They had two sons and two daughters, and accumulated a large tobacco plantation in Northamption County, on Virginia's Eastern Shore.13

Virginians who purchased incoming white redemptioners were given fifty acres of land for each person.14

In 1651 Anthony Johnson was given 250 acres as "head rights" for purchasing five incoming white redemptioners. The deed abstract provided:

Anthony Johns, 250 acres. Northampton Co., 24 July 1651 . . . At great Naswattock Cr., being a neck of land bounded on the S.W. by the maine Cr. & on S.E.& N.W. by two small branches issueing out of the mayne Cr. Trans. of 5 pers: Tho. Bemrose, Peter Bughby, Antho. Cripps, Jno. Gesorroto, Richard Johnson.

Anthony Johnson received an additional fifty acres in 1651 for purchasing another incoming white redemptioner.15

In 1652 John Johnson, Anthony Johnson's eldest son, purchased eleven incoming white males and females, and received 550 acres adjacent to his father. The deed abstract provided:

John Johnson, 550 acs. Northamption Co., 10 May 1652 . . . At great Naswattocks Cr., adj. 200 acs. Granted to Anthony Johnson. Trans. of 11 pers: John Edward, Wm. Routh, Tho. Yowell, Fra. Maland, William Price, John Owen, Dorothy Rily, Richard Hemstead, Law. Barnes, Row. Rith, Mary Johnson. Two years later Richard Johnson, Anthony's son and John's brother, purchased two incoming white males and was awarded 100 acres. The deed abstract makes clear that all three Johnsons were African-Americans:

Rich Jnoson (Johnson), Negro, 100 acs. Northamption Co., 21 Nov. 1654 . . . On S. Side of Pongoteague Riv., Ely. Upon Pocomock Nly, Upon the land of John Jnoson, Negro, Wly, upon Anto. Jnoson, Negro & Sly. Upon Nich. Wabbilow. Trans. of 2 pers: Wm. Ames, Wm. Vincent. Following a fire that damaged their tobacco plantation in 1665, Mary and Anthony Johnson sold their land in Virginia and took their white and black redemptioners to Somerset County, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. There, on September 10, 1666, Anthony leased 300 acres called "Tonies Vinyard" for 200 years. Johnson died before August 1670. His lease in Somerset was renegotiated by his widow, Mary for ninety-nine years, with the provision her sons, John and Richard, would assume the lease after her death.16

John Johnson was born in 1631. In 1664 he sold the 550 acres he had received for purchasing the eleven whites on May 10, 1652. In November 1664 he and Mary Gersheene, a Negro servant owned by his father, were punished for fornication. On January 17, 1665, John's wife Susanne petitioned the Northamption Court to release him from jail where he was held for begetting a child by Hanna Leach, a white redemptioner owned by John. In 1665 he moved to Somerset County, MD where his parents lived.17

About 1680, John Johnson moved to present-day Sussex County, Delaware. In 1683 he purchased 200 acres of land. That same year he was accused of murdering his wife, Susanne, because a witness claimed he had seen him beat her before she died. He was acquitted of the charge. He was last mentioned in official records in 1689, when he sold an island to William Fatcher.18

Richard Johnson, Anthony and Mary's youngest son, was born in 1632. He remained in Virginia on the 100 acres he received for purchasing two incoming whites on November 21, 1654, when his father and brother moved to Maryland in 1665. Richard married a white redemptioner he owned, Susan, and they had five children. He purchased 590 acres near Matomkin from Christopher Tompson in December 1675. Richard died in 1689 just after contracting to build new stocks, a whipping post, and a pillory for the Accomack County Courthouse.19

There were a number of additional Virginia land patents representing grants to free blacks of from fifty to 550 acres for purchasing white redemptioners. For example, on April 18, 1667 Emanuel Cabew received fifty acres in James City County, and in 1668 fifty acres were deed to John Harris of Queen's Creek.20

Francis Payne paid for his freedom in 1650 by purchasing three incoming whites for his master's use.21

The First Black Slave for Life

In addition to owning white redemptioners, Anthony and Mary Johnson also owned black servants. In the 1640's John Casor was brought to the Virginia Colony, where he was purchased by Anthony Johnson. In 1653 Casor filed a complaint in Virginia's Northamption County Court, claiming that his master had unjustly extended the term of his servitude with the intent of keeping Casor his servant for life. In his formal written pleading Casor alleged: "Yt hee come unto Virginia for seaven or eight years of Indenture, yt he had demanded his freedom of Anth. Johnson his masfter; & further sd yt hee had kept him his servt seaven years longer than he should or ought." [Original spelling.]22 Johnson, insisting he knew nothing of an indenture, fought hard to retain what he regarded as his personal property, stating, "hee had ye Negro for his life." On March 5, 1655 the presiding judge, Captain Samuel Goldsmith, ruled that "the said Jno Caster Negro shall forthwith bee returned to the service of his master Anthony Johnson." Casor went with the Johnson's to Maryland and was still owned by Mary Johnson in 1672.23

Durante vite (servitude for life) had not existed in the colonies – except for a small number of white convicts transported from the British Isles – until Anthony and Mary Johnson won the judicial determination making John Castor their servant for life. It was not until 1670 that the Virginia legislature enacted durante vite by providing that "all servants not being Christians imported into this colony by shipping are to be slaves for their lives, but such servants as come are to serve, if boys or girls, until 30 years of age, if men or women, 12 years and no longer."24

Blacks and Indians came to own, and abuse, whites in Virginia in such large numbers that in 1670 the House of Burgesses (legislature) proclaimed that " . . . noe negro or Indian though baptyised and enjoyned their own ffreedome shall be capable of any purchase of christians, but yet not debarred from buying any of their own nation." [Original spelling.] "Christian" was a euphemism of the period for Caucasian. Virginia's Slave Code of 1705 provided: "That no negroes, mulattos, Indians, although christians, ore Jew, Moore, Mahometans, or other infidels, shall at any time, purchase any Christian, nor any other, except of their own complexion, or such as are declared slaves by this act."25

Footnotes:

09. Ballagh, Ibid., 41

10. Morris, Ibid., passim.

11. Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of North Carolina and Virginia, 3rd Ed. (Clearfield, 1997),

12. Russell, John H. The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619-1865 (John Hopkins Univ., 1913; reprinted Dover Pub., 1969), 25.

13. Ibid., 24; Bennett, ibid., 37.

14. Ballagh, ibid., 41-42; Bennett, ibid., 37; Russell, ibid., 88.

15. Abstracts cited in Bennett, ibid., 37; see also Russell, ibid., 25; Frazier, E. Franklin. The Free Negro Family (Fisk Univ. Pres, 1932; reprinted NY Times, 1968), 1; Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of North Carolina and Virginia, 3rd Ed. (Clearfield, 1997), 423-426.

16. Heinegg, ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid., 1; Russell, ibid., 38

21. Heinegg, ibid., 1.

22. Burnham, Phillip. "Selling Poor Steven" in American Heritage (Feb/Mar 1993), 91-97; Russell, ibid., 32; Heinegg, ibid., 423=26.

23. Ibid.

24. W.W. Hening. Statutes at Large. II 283; Russell, ibid., 22.

25. Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro, 1550-1812 (Peligan, 1968), 93; II W.W. Hening. Statutes at Large, 26, 283; Russell, ibid., 20,21.




Sedition and Conspiracy

By John Jewell - Part 1

Introduction

The American Revolution was a war of independence or separation, in which the British colonies severed their connection with the Crown, but kept their society much as it had been before the war. A long series of acts passed by Parliament made the Colonies break with the motherland: the Writs of Assistance (1761), the Proclamation of 1763, the Stamp Act (1765), the Townshend Acts (1767), the Tea Act (1773) and the Intolerable Acts (1774). These and other actions by the Crown threatened both the prosperity of the colonies and what the colonists had come to regard as their rights according to the (unwritten) British constitution. The colonists had meetings that led to the First Continental Congress (1774) and the Second Continental Congress (1775-1776), which eventually established the goal of separation from Britain. Discussions of a peaceful solution ceased and war began. Although the colonists had little experience in the military arts, they put great faith in the ability of untrained citizen-soldiers to fight for the preservation of their liberties. Under the leadership of George Washington and a few former colonial and foreign officers, an army was formed which, through the course of many heartbreaking defeats and constant hunger and hardship, would keep the professional armies of Great Britain at bay until, with French and other foreign assistance, they were able to defeat the mighty British Empire after many long years of war. The war was fought in a series of land campaigns, in which the colonists participated, either as members of the Continental Army or as members of the various state militias, and on the sea, where the French alliance was vital in intimidating British sea power. There were Americans for whom the end of the war brought misery. The colonists, whose loyalty lay with the King, knew only bitterness and defeat. At the end of the long struggle, the veterans of the Continental Army disbanded and made their way home as best they could, unpaid and unprovided for by the new government they had brought into being.

Sedition and Conspiracy by John Jewell

In 1798, U.S. President John Adams signed the notorious "Alien and Sedition Acts" to stifle all freedom of speech, press, and association. For "public safety," the President was empowered to jail, indict, fine, and imprison anyone "who should unlawfully combine or conspire" to "impede the operation of any law;" and write, publish, or utter any "false, scandalous, and malicious" statements "with the intent to defame" the President or Cabinet, Judiciary, or Congress. President Adams was also authorized to expel or imprison any alien "dangerous to peace and safety," and to increase the naturalization period from five to fourteen years. The latter was primarily aimed at Irish immigrants, who were violently anti-British monarchist, pro-French republican, and the "most God-provoking Democrats this side of hell." The rich "Federalists" had seized control of the U.S. Government and smashed several rebellions of the English and Scot-Irish farmers and working people of America. When German-American farmers rose up in 1798, they too were crushed. The "Federalists" moved closer to the reactionary policies of the British Crown, which had been expelled only a few years before in the American Revolution. Newspapers were shut down, presses seized or wrecked, editors and writers jailed and fined. Mobs of Federalists beat up city workers, townsmen, and farmers of the new "Democratic Societies" and "Republican Clubs" (which were successors to the "Sons of Liberty" of early Revolutionary days). The Philadelphia home of rival Vice President Thomas Jefferson was threatened. One man was jailed 18 months for writing: "there has been an actual struggle between the laboring part of the community and those lazy rascals that have invented every means that the Devil has put in their heads to destroy the laboring people." To back-up this state of war against the common people, U.S. President Adams authorized the creation of a "Provisional Army" to stand alongside of the regular forces. In a replay of the crushing of the "Whiskey Rebellion" in 1794, aid George Washington was made Commander-in-Chief of the "Provos," and former Treasury Secretary Alexander "Levine" Hamilton become the 2-i-c and "General." The U.S. Navy began an undeclared war on French merchant and military vessels in the West Indies. German farmers in Pennsylvania erupted in rebellion against land assessors and tax collectors. "Fries' Insurrection" of 1798 was speedily crushed and the leader, John Fries, sentenced to death. Fries was later pardoned, as eventually too were the mostly English-heritage farmers of the bloody, social-revolutionary "Shays' Rebellion" (1785-1786) in Massachusetts, and the majority Scot-Irish rebels ("White savages") of the "Whiskey Insurrection" (1794) in western Pennsylvania, who attempted to create a separatists "Western Nation." (State troops had been sent into Kentucky in 1779 to suppress a separatist state of "Transylvania," and less successfully against the separatist state of "Franklin" in eastern Tennessee (1784-1789). The "Pennsylvania Line Mutiny" of starving American soldiers was savagely crushed in 1781 by howitzers, bayonets, and the hangman's noose. A riot of unpaid soldiers in 1783 caused Congress to flee Philadelphia and call for a "Federal District" with special police powers. The rebel state of Vermont, independent since 1775 and both defeating and intriguing with the British, finally became a U.S. state in 1791. Kentucky followed in 1792 after Spanish-instigated separatism, which developed in the wake of British intrigue in the Revolution. Spain had seized Florida, the Gulf, New Orleans, the vast "Louisiana Territory," and occupied the U.S. outpost at Natchez. They conspired with Creek Indians in the South, as the British were doing with Cherokees and Creeks. When Spanish agents tried to organize the Nashville area into "New Spain," statehood in the U.S. was at last granted to Tennessee in 1796. Northwest Indian tribes supplied by an illegal British fort in Ohio twice defeated American Whites (1790-1792). Despite the pro-British sycophancy and treason of Washington's political-commissar and Treasury chief, Alexander "Levine" Hamilton, frontier troops of the "American Legion" overwhelmed the Indian savages in 1794, forced a British pull-back closer to Canada, and cleared Ohio for White settlers. Yet, in that same year of 1794, when French Republican agents organized an American "Revolutionary Army" in Kentucky to invade British Canada and Spanish Florida and New Orleans, the first U.S. President, "Federalist" George Washington, dispatched troops to quash the effort, as he did against the "Whiskey Rebellion" in 1794 - calling both a "Jacobin conspiracy" of the French "Reign of Terror." Now, in 1798, the second President of the United States, John Adams, made his own "Federalist" move against the "sedition" of the American people.

Populism

Political opposition to the Federalist "Alien and Sedition Acts" gathered strength. The Democratic-Republican state legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky, led by Vice President Jefferson and future-President Madison, declared the Acts to be null and void in their states, citing the "Bill of Rights" and "States Rights." In New York State, Aaron Burr, organizer of the St. Tammany political machine, led the Democratic Republican opposition. During the Revolution, Burr fought in the Quebec Campaign (1775-76 American Invasion of Canada) and later became Secret Service Chief in Philadelphia (warning of General Benedict Arnold's Loyalist wife and pending defection to the British). After the war he became Attorney General of New York and then Senator. He was a "bitter enemy of the Federalists" and their "monocrat" leader, Alexander "Levine" Hamilton. Upper New York State was the bedrock of Federalist power, with the common people impoverished land-tenants and unable to vote. The area had been extensively burned-out in the Revolution by American Tory "rangers, renegades, and cowboy plunders," who used savage Indians to massacre "Patriot" men, women and children. After defeat in the Revolution, the "Loyalist refugee" landowners fled to Canada. Political power was left in the hands of rich "Federalist" landowners and their agents, bound together by a Masonic Lodge conspiracy which ensured that all sheriffs, judges, and jurors were Federalists and secret Masons. Against this monstrous complot, Burr created the first of the political ward-machines, St. Tammany (Hall). "By sheer force of will and intellect, Burr wrested New York from the Hamilton-Schuyler faction, in defiance of the money-power and the ultra-British aristocracy" - quote: Thomas E. Watson, Georgia Populist leader. (The feudal land-tenure system in upstate New York finally led farmers to revolt in the "Hedelberg" or "Anti-Rent War" of 1840-1846). In 1800, the Federalists were crushed in national elections by the expanded vote of Southern planters, yeoman farmers, small tradesmen, mechanics, city workmen, and frontiersmen in the West. The "Alien and Sedition Acts" lapsed, and those still in jail were pardoned. But the new President, Thomas Jefferson, had made a private deal with Hamilton to secure the Presidency. Hamilton "Levine" again sabotaged his own Federalist candidate, old John Adams running for re-election, who received only 65 electoral votes. Two Democratic-Republicans were offered, Jefferson and Burr, both receiving 73 votes for a deadlock. To secure Federalist votes in the run-off, the Virginia-slaver Jefferson agreed to continue Federalist foreign policy and preserve the financial structure set-up by "Levine" Hamilton: "We can pay off his debt, but we cannot get rid of his financial system." Jefferson became President, but under the then-current rules, his nearest rival Burr became Vice President. Just as Adams had dispensed of Jefferson, so Jefferson sent V.P. Burr a letter in which he discreetly ruled-out any role for Burr in the new Administration. Meanwhile, in a last-ditch reactionary effort, the lame-duck Federalists used January to March of 1801 in ramming-through a "Judiciary Act," which set-up 16 circuit courts under federal judges and an army of Federal attorneys, marshals, and clerks. Outgoing President Adams spent his last night in office signing commissions for the Federalist appointees. In 1804, President Jefferson again allied with Hamilton to scotch a "Northern Confederacy" secessionist plot in New England (led by Federalist ultra-conservatives, the "Essex Junto," who needed New York state support to succeed, which Hamilton denied them). At the same time, Hamilton assisted Jefferson's intervention in the New York gubernatorial race. Vice President Burr, having been frozen-out of the Democratic-Republican Party by Jefferson and accused of covertly encouraging the "Essex Junto," decided to use the St. Tammany Society to run as an independent Republican for Governor against Jefferson's hand-picked official candidate. Hamilton's own Federalists launched vicious personal attacks on Burr, who was defeated. Vice President Burr then challenged Hamilton to a duel and coolly shot to death the vaunted Alexander "Levine." Hamilton was dead: the bastard son of a Jew merchant in the West Indies; who aped the rich while serving as George Washington's personal secretary in the Revolution; who linked with the profiteers G. and R. Morris, both Congressional finance-chiefs (they starved the troops at the front and the common people at home while making fortunes with speculators like Jew Sokiloff and usurers like Jew Haym Solomon); and who conspired by officer-corp. coup d'etat to establish a monarchy in the U.S. (the "Newburgh Conspiracy" of 1783). Hamilton married into the Upper New York landed-aristocracy and served as an appointee-Congressman while still in uniform and conspiring to install a dictatorship. Following the hysteria caused by "Shays' Rebellion" (against tax and mortgage seizures) in 1786-1787, Hamilton wrote much of the Federalist Constitution (minus a Bill of Rights and most Whites still unable to vote) and became the first Treasury-Secretary of the United States. Hamilton established the Bank of the U.S. and enriched his speculator friends (the war-bond scam), while impoverishing via taxes and "Continental Dollar" default the White workers and farmers (who he called the "Great Beast"). Hamilton sold off government land in parcels only the rich could afford, aided private banks, enacted tariffs to protect Northern merchants while heavily taxing the agrarian South and West and created the factory system of industrial capitalism in the U.S. (including female and child-labor, "of a tender age ... more earlier useful," which he strongly advocated). Hamilton personally crushed the western "Whiskey Rebellion" (against federal taxation on grain by-products) while at the same time committing treason himself by revealing state secrets to British agents. Hamilton dreamed ultimately of conquering Latin America to become "King of the Americas." A well-aimed pistol shot ended this "brilliant" career. (Hamilton is remembered on the U.S. $10 bill).

Burr's Conspiracy

U.S. Vice President Burr faced murder charges. He fled to Georgia, then west to New Orleans. (The French had seized "Orleans Territory" and the vast "Louisiana" back from Spain, and then sold it to the United States). There, Burr made the mistake of conferring with the U.S. Military Governor of Upper Louisiana, a fellow veteran of the Revolution, General James Wilkinson - a lying dog of a renegade traitor and corrupt speculator, who had long been secretly in Spanish pay. (In the Revolution, Wilkinson had dabbled in cowardice, betrayal, and coup d'etat intrigue - the "Conway Cabal" of 1778, which he turned and exposed. After marrying into the Philadelphia Biddle financier-family and serving as a legislator, Wilkinson went to Kentucky as military commander; there he entered Spanish pay, cornered the American goods market in new Orleans, and tried to bring Kentucky and western Tennessee into "New Spain." After next conspiring with British Canada to invade Spanish territory, Wilkinson did his best to sabotage a successful campaign in 1794 against British-backed Indians in Ohio. He then became U.S. Military Commander in the West and resumed his agent-work for Spain).

In 1806, Colonel Burr and a kinsman, Dayton, from his New York "partisans," formed a company of youthful adventurers on the Ohio River, many of them recruited in Kentucky and Tennessee. The plan was to proceed down the Mississippi River by boats to Louisiana, and under the guise of "settlers," venture up the Red River to the limit of U.S. territory. Crossing the Sabine River, Burr's company would seize thinly populated Spanish Texas. With an expanded army of White volunteers, Burr intended to invade Mexico and hold Vera Cruz, possibly even Mexico City, as ransom for the independence of a White Western nation in the American Southwest. (This was taken from testimony given by Andrew Jackson, future President of the U.S., who conferred with Burr in Tennessee). Spanish forces had meanwhile invaded the Bayou Pierre region of Louisiana. When the U.S. War Department ordered Wilkinson to drive them out, he procrastinated over four months, citing "various and unavoidable delays". Then a crackpot who styled himself as "General Eaton" published a booklet claiming that Burr tried to recruit his genius to lead a plot to assassinate President Jefferson, overthrow the government, and install Burr as "Emperor". Wilkinson had seriously considered quitting the Army, double-crossing his secret Spanish paymasters, and accepting Burr's offer of second-in-command and military leadership of the invasion of Texas. (He pictured himself the "Washington of the West"). But with the expose by "General Eaton" and facing court-martial for not ousting the Spanish from Bayou Pierre, Wilkinson launched again into the basest treachery.

General Wilkinson blocked the Mississippi militarized New Orleans, conducted arbitrary arrests (implicating his own business agent, who'd been handling supplies for Burr's "Sabine Expedition"), and sent false, hysterical reports to Washington D.C.: "Burr had 20,000 cutthroats, was inciting a slave revolt; assassins stalked Wilkinson in the streets, a fleet of British gunboats approached and New Orleans was doomed; but he, Wilkinson, was sending out an army to 'meet the invader and triumph or perish!'" President Jefferson issued a proclamation denouncing Burr and dispatched Federal Marshals westward. The Ohio Governor seized Burr's island headquarters near Marietta on the Ohio River and most of his fleet. A handful of recruits escaped and found Burr at the mouth of the Cumberland, back from scouring Kentucky and Tennessee for men and unaware of events. With 80 to 100 men and only thirteen boats, Burr forged down the Mississippi, not knowing of Wilkinson's renegacy. Near Natchez, the main body was intercepted by Wilkinson's forces, who reported back that they had found "69 boys and young men just from school," armed "with scarce enough muskets to protect them against outlaws on the river." A reputed case of "deadly tomahawks" turned out to be plain shingling hatchets for settler work.

Burr surrendered to a local sheriff, demanding a trial to clear himself of Wilkinson's insane charges. He was released for lack of evidence, but on the approach of Federal Marshals, Burr realized just how gigantic the conspiracy against him had become. Excess arms were sunk in the river and the adventurers scattered. Some were captured in Kentucky months later. Burr tried to escape across the Mississippi wilderness to West Florida. He was taken prison in February 1807, near the village of Tombigbee, and sent by land under military guard to jail in Richmond, Virginia.

(End of Part 1)




Sedition and Conspiracy

By John Jewell - Part 2

The former Vice President was charged with high treason for attempting to overthrow the U.S. Government. In a sensational Sedition Trial, U.S. President Jefferson repeatedly interfered, sending private directives and new evidence to the U.S. Attorney, and offering blanket pardons and Army commissions to any of the indicted men who would turn state's evidence against Burr. (One of the company, which the President attempted to bribe with an officer's commission, was a French adventurer). Burr was charged with trying to seize New Orleans and create a British and Spanish-backed buffer state in Louisiana and Mississippi. This "Emperor" or "Napoleon of the West also plotted to raid Washington D.C., kill President Jefferson, oust Congress and install a military protectorate with Burr as Dictator." These sinister and crazed charges came from British and Spanish agents in Washington D.C. and from the vile traitor, General Wilkinson, who was still secretly in Spanish pay.

Despite all the machinations of the Executive Branch, Burr was backed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and acquitted in open jury trial. To "organize a military assemblage" was "not levying war on the United States", the court declared, nor was it a crime to "advise or procure for treason," where no overt treason could be proven to have existed. The judge demanded that the Federal Government first show evidence of real treasonous acts before he would allow hearsay evidence of what Burr or his confidants supposedly said at one time or another. The jury took 25 minutes of deliberation before finding Burr "not guilty."

The Federals continued with games of double and triple jeopardy. Burr was next tried and acquitted on charges of conspiring to invade a "friendly power" (the Spanish in Mexico!). He and his associates were then held for trial in Ohio on the same charges, but this time by a state. These were finally dropped. Throughout the ordeal, Burr never lost his self-composure and viewed the proceedings with an air of smiling cynicism. Nor could most of his associates be broken. (The government needed two, iron-clad, collaborating witnesses of actual deeds, which they couldn't get). Since Burr still faced murder charges in New York and New Jersey (for the shooting of Hamilton) and treason and invasion charges in Kentucky, Tennessee and Louisiana, he opted for temporary self-exile in Europe. The renegade Wilkinson came within only two votes of a Grand Jury for standing treason-trial himself. Outside the courthouse, one of his victims knocked Wilkinson across the street and challenged him to a duel. Wilkinson fled, saying, "I do not traffic with traitors."

He then wrote President Jefferson: "I have saved the country. Posterity will do honor to my name and service." He finally lost his command when half of his troops died of food poisoning and fever after being dumped in a swamp while Wilkinson lived like a king in New Orleans on contractor kickbacks. He regained command in the War of 1812-15, where his cowardice and gross incompetence resulted in the British burning-down Buffalo, New York and massacring hundreds of U.S. soldiers in Ontario, Canada. Wilkinson finally died of chronic dysentery, a Bible peddler and howling drunk in the slums of Mexico City.

Gun In Hand

Burr returned to the U.S. on the outbreak of the War of 1812 and quietly practiced law in New York. He saw the final death of the detested Federalist Party when it tried to take New England out of the Union in opposition to war against Britain - the power which had enslaved U.S. seamen and incited savage Indian attacks on White western settlers. The interdiction of Burr's "Sabine Expedition" in 1806 did not halt the western expansion of the White American common people. They surged not only into the vast "Louisiana Purchase," but also into Spanish-held Texas. They went gun in hand.




Bloody Railroad Wars

By John Jewell - Part 1

"... Imperialism has now reached a degree of almost scientific perfection. It uses White workers to conquer the non-white workers of The Colonies. Then, it hurls the non-white workers of one colony against those of another non-white colony. Finally, it relies on the Colored workers of the colonies to rule the White workers. Recently, White French soldiers near mutiny in the occupied Ruhr of Germany, were surrounded by French African soldiers, and colored native light-infantry were sent against White German strikers..." - Ho Chi Minh, 1923

An economic panic seized America in 1873, caused by banking, stock and railroad speculation. It followed only three years after "Black Friday" on Wall Street, when the sordid corruption and bribery of the Government by Financiers Gould and Risk caused a similar crash. The bankruptcy in 1873 of Jay Cooke & Co. (after a failed railroad take-over scheme) triggered a "Great Panic" on Broad Street and the New York Stock Exchange, leading from Wall Street to the Banks and a nationwide credit crunch. This "financial slump" spawned a major Depression, lasting from 1873 through 1877. Twenty-three thousand businesses folded. Three million workers were unemployed, out of a total of forty million. (Unemployment benefits and welfare relief was non-existent). Real wages were cut by almost 50%. In 1877, the Railroad Magnates, including sinister Jay Gould, who had scuttled from stock fraud and government bribery into a trans-continental railroad empire, announced yet another 10% wage cut for railway workers.

Gould, backed by his gunmen of the Pinkerton Detectives, could brag, "I can hire one half of the working class to kill the other half." Gould spoke from past experience; He, and every other principal Capitalist involved in the corruption of the 1870's, had been created by the sellout of the U.S. Government to High Finance in the mass murder of the American Civil War.

The Uprising Begins

On July 16, 1877, in Camden, Maryland, forty brakemen and firemen refused to work at a station of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail Road. The next day, in Martinsburg, West Virginia, eight hundred strikers halted trains. Mayor and police arrested strike leaders. Joining rail men were miners, the unemployed and local farmhands. A mob of twelve hundred attacked the town jail and freed the strike leaders. Two companies of State Militia (80 men) entered Martinsburg. One guardsman was wounded and a striking fireman killed in the ensuing melee. The overwhelmed Militia surrendered some of the guardsmen and officers going over to the strikers. On the appeal of the State Governor, U.S. President Hayes (who had been defeated in the 1876 election but inaugurated after a political deal with Southern politicians) dispatched five companies of U.S. Artillery to quell the West Virginia disturbances. In support of the strikers, railway men in Pittsburgh stopped all freight traffic to the area on the Pennsylvania Rail Road At Cumberland, Maryland. The State Militia dispersed strikers, killing one. The strike then spread throughout Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri. It would eventually reach the Pacific, with 100,000 strikers in armed revolt in seventeen states and territories. Thousands were killed and wounded and injured. Major battles occurred, even seeing the use of canons and Gatling Machine Guns.

Property damage, especially of burned rail yards and stock, was staggering. Whole cities were in the hands of strikers for several days; in some cities, strike committees ran essential services. From the Atlantic to Pacific, police and militias were defeated. The insurrection was crushed by Federal troops, including Artillery, Naval warships, Marines, and Cavalry forces pulled in from Indian fighting.

Most of the events were a spontaneous upsurge of unorganized White workers. But in Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco, the radical Workmen's Party (WMP) led the revolt politically. In Chicago, anarchists dominated; in St. Louis, the Marxian-Communists; In the West, spreading through Denver and Salt Lake City to San Francisco, the rebellion became an anti-Chinese uprising of White racist workers. The Workmen's Party of California was organized and led by radical White racists.

Bloody Class War

In Baltimore, Maryland, a mob of six thousand built barricades to block city streets on the arrival of State Militia. With women to the front, the strikers attempted to halt three companies (120 men) of the 6th Md. Regiment as they marched from an armory to clear the main train station. When guardsmen attacked the women, stones began to fly. The Militia opened fire; more stones and gunshots came in reply. Twelve rioters were killed and eighteen wounded. Twenty guardsmen were seriously injured. In a firefight at the train depot, police killed seven rioters. A "scab" (non-Union worker) brakeman was attacked and wounded by strikers.

The 5th Md. Regiment (150 men) was stoned en route from their armory. Eight guardsmen, including a captain, lieutenant, sergeant and corporal were severely injured. Rioters were dispersed by a bloody bayonet charge. A mob then destroyed the train dispatch house with incendiaries. The next day, three companies of U.S. Engineer Corp. were stoned by a mob of five hundred. A contingent of one hundred Marines landed in the port. Police swore in Three thousand special constables. The following day, rioters fired a train of thirty-seven oil cars. Troops and police dispersed the mob. Eight rioters were killed and seventeen wounded; eight policemen were wounded. The retreating strikers fired a lumberyard and planing mill. Meanwhile, U.S. President Hayes had surrounded nearby Washington D.C. with troops.

In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, railway workers locked their engines in the main depot roundhouses. Local militiamen refused to fire on the strikers. Miners, other traders, the unemployed, and deserters from the local militia joined the railway men. Six hundred men of the upper crust Philadelphia Militia invaded and seized the main roundhouse, killing twenty-six workers and wounding twenty (many old men, boys and children). Strikers counterattacked, five thousand strong, trapping the troops all night inside the roundhouse. The Philadelphia forces used mobile canons and Gatling machine guns. The workers had raided an armory, a gun factory, and a gun shop. Fierce fighting ensued the next day: ninety-one persons were killed and two hundred and nine were wounded. The militiamen fought their way out of the roundhouse, abandoning canon and Gatlings, and retreated to the countryside. Rioters looted and fired locomotives, boxcars, roundhouses, shops, the Union depot, grain elevators, and every railroad dock and building. Liberty Street was a wall of flames for three miles. Destroyed were 1,600 boxcars and 126 locomotives. Final costs topped five million dollars (an incredible sum in 1877). The Governor declared Pennsylvania in a state of "domestic insurrection" and wired U.S. President Hayes that local militia were unreliable. The country, he warned, would soon be in a state of "anarchy and revolution." President Hayes sent in massive Federal forces to occupy Pittsburgh. Tenement houses were searched, block-by-block, and entire families arrested on suspicion of looting or possession of dangerous weapons.

In Reading, Pennsylvania, a mob of three thousand strikers stoned 253 militiamen. Two hundred guardsmen were injured. A firefight ensued: twelve strikers were killed, fifty were wounded, six mortally. Twenty militia and five police were wounded. That night, strikers burned down a new bridge, costing $150,000. In Philadelphia, home of reaction, rioters fired nine oil tanks and boxcars of oil barrels. Police dispersed them and then fired into a meeting of the Workingmen's Party, killing one. In Shamokin, PA, strikers tore up track and plundered railcars. Militia killed four and wounded five. Rioting also occurred at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Smash The State

In Buffalo, New York, a fight at the Lakeshore Roundhouse resulted in three strikers killed and two militia officers and six police knifed and bludgeoned. A company of militia went over to the strikers. The N.Y. Central Rail Road was blockaded. The State Militia Commander, General Carr, vowed to crush the strike at all costs. New militia forces attacked, wounding several strikers at a riot in the stockyards; a militiaman was also wounded. On the 22nd of July, the Workingmen's Party rallied 4,000 workers in Cincinnati, Ohio. The next day, railway men struck. After an attack by police, a mob burned the bridge over the Ohio River. The rail strike spread to all trades in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, including women hotel workers. Strikers controlled the city for several days. Two gangs of tramps and a band of drunken looters descending from Columbia City were routed. All industries struck in Indianapolis, Indiana, and in Louisville, Kentucky. In New York City, red flags decorated the Bowery slums and a mob of three hundred stoned police. They were dispersed by a bloody baton charge; several rioters and police were injured. Coal miners in the East then struck. Forty-five thousand anthracite miners went out in Pennsylvania. (Rebel sentiment was especially strong in the anthracite mines of Pennsylvania State. From 1860 to 1875, the "Molly Maguires," an underground secret society of Irish immigrant miners, the "Ancient Order of Hibernians," led murderous attacks on mine officials, strikebreakers, and traitors. Infiltrated by the detestable Pinkerton Detectives, the "Molly" leaders were hanged between 1877 and 1879). The bituminous coal fields of Maryland, West Virginia, and Illinois were shut down. Wages had been cut from $4.00 to $2.50 a week; now, any man who by working 12 hours earned $1.00 was docked 10% to lower costs to the mine owners. Five hundred miners in Scranton, Pennsylvania attacked with pick handles and pistols the shops of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Rail Roads, wrecking the premises and beating scab workers. The city mayor had his jaw broken. The mob grew to five thousand. Twenty-eight vigilantes armed with Remington repeating rifles, killed three strikers and wounded twenty-five, several fatally. The strikers returned fire with a few pistols, wounding two vigilantes. Two thousand troops arrived to occupy the city. The strike now spread westward, generating general strikes in Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, and Galveston, Texas.

The Workingmen's Party

In Chicago and St. Louis, the new Workingmen's Party politically led the strikes. Anarchists dominated the Chicago section, and Marxist-Communists in St. Louis. (Organized in 1876, the Workingmen's Party was an outgrowth of the International Workingmen's Association, or "First International", which collapsed after infighting between followers of the totalitarian-communist German-Jew Karl Marx and the libertarians led by Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Marx had transferred headquarters from London to New York City just before the collapse. Anarchists in America organized the "Black International" in Pittsburgh, the International Working People's Association. A Socialist Labor Party was formed in 1878, and libertarians formed a rival split from the Marxists, known as the Revolutionary Socialist Labor Party.)

A strike was declared in Chicago after a further wage-cut on the railways. 23 July 1877 (Monday): forty switchmen on the Michigan Central R.R. struck. Tuesday, July 24th: all freight was stopped. A mass march through the city closed stockyards, packinghouses, factories, and brought out the crews of lake boats on Lake Michigan. Meanwhile, police had formed a special constabulary, which included Civil War veterans of the "Grand Army of the Republic". Ten thousand strikers and supporters gathered for WMP speeches. Constituting the crowd the "Grand Army of Starvation", a speaker from the WMP declared: "Better one thousand of us to be shot down in the streets than ten thousand of us die starving." Speeches were given in both German for immigrant workers and English for native White workers. The press called them the "Committee of the Communes", comparing the strikers to the bloody Paris Commune uprising of 1871.

Synopsis

A major economic depression struck the U.S. in 1873, triggered by a failed railroad take-over scheme and a panic on Wall Street and in the major Banking Houses. After three years of misery for White working people, the Railroad capitalists made massive wage cuts on railway workers. Strikes and bloody riots spread through Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky. Large-scale fighting saw hundreds of White men, women and children murdered by State Troops and the Regular Armed Forces. On the 23rd and 24th of July, 1877, fighting broke out in Chicago.

Looting

Gun shops were plundered of 150 revolvers, 50 rifles, and a gross of brass knuckles. Strikers seized railway yards and derailed a passing train. Wednesday, July 25: All trades went out, including tanneries, stone-works, brick-yards, furniture factories, lumberyards, livery stables, distilleries. After police viciously clubbed a band of youths in a freight yard, an enraged mob of 20,000 attacked police. Three rioters were killed and nine wounded (the total was actually higher, but many riot casualties were carted away privately.) Four police were wounded, one fatally. Strikers seized the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rail Road Roundhouse, extinguishing all engine fires. Police arrived, killing five. That night, a mass Workingman's Party (WMP) Rally held at Market and Madison Streets, was attacked by police.

Thursday, July 26: The Illinois 2nd Regiment entered Chicago. Fifty separate mobs battled police and militia. In a running fight at the Halsted Street Viaduct and railroad tracks below, six police were shot, eighteen rioters were killed and thirty-two wounded, and the city viaduct destroyed. Police raided a meeting of cabinetmakers discussing the eight-hour day, killing on and beating the others. A riot of Bohemian (Czech) women stoned police; a fourteen-year-old girl was shot. Rioters swelled to 25,000. U.S. regulars and cavalry were pulled in from fighting Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. The city of Chicago was retaken for the Master Class, with a total of 30 killed and 100 wounded. One policeman died of wounds. Among those killed was a leader of the Workingmen's Party, Frank Norbeck. Another WMP leader, Nicholas Schilling, was wounded.




Bloody Railroad Wars

By John Jewell - Part 2

Part 2 continues.

Marxists in St. Louis

In St. Louis, a General Strike was erratically led by an Executive Committee formed by a coalition of minor trade union officials and the Workingmen's Party. The WMP was dominated by Marxist - Communists, mostly German immigrants from the failed 1848-1849 revolution in Germany and active in St. Louis since the start of the U.S. Civil War. (The German-Marxists had included several high ranking Union generals, radical and liberal Republican politicians, and occupation agents during the crushing of the popular Southern insurgency in rural Missouri). Several of the WMP leaders were former members of the International Workingmen's Association and one in St. Louis, James Cope, had aided Karl Marx at the inauguration of the IWA in London, 1864.

Monday, 23 July 1877: railway and Vulcan Iron workers rallied in support of the striking railway workers attacked by federal troops in Pennsylvania. (St. Louis newspapers bannered the reports under the heading: "WAR News). At the same time another mass rally of workers called on the Mayor to demand that troops not be dispatched to St. Louis, the "City of Little Bread". Tues., 24 July: worker committees visited hundreds of shops, asking workers to strike. Especially active were groups of coopers. 1,500 mechanics and molders organized a marching band protest through the city streets, armed with clubs and slaves. A mass night rally followed. Meanwhile, the WMP and trade union leaders had organized a strike Executive Committee, demanding an eight-hour day and the abolition of child labor. Fearful of the mob in the streets, which they could not control, the Marxist and trade unionists also denounced the use of violence. 25 of July (Wed.): railway workers shut down the yards in East St. Louis. Marching through the city, five thousand strong with a worker at their head carrying a loaf of bread stuck on a flagpole, the strikers shut virtually every factory and shop. Cannery and stove foundry workers joined, as well as Black river-levee roustabouts. Several bakeries were looted and a dry goods store in the northside slums. The Executive Committee intervened to operate essential services, running trains, distributing bread, and assuring that workers continued to process sugar at a mill facing spoiled supplies, under the guard of a 200 man worker militia. The mayor of East St. Louis (a German refugee from the 1848 Revolution) formed a special police force from strikers to maintain order in his section. The city mayor and chief of police in St. Louis properly admitted they had no control over the situation. Secretly they began to take orders from a businessmen's vigilante force, the "Committee of Public Safety", overseen by former Confederate and Missouri State Militia officers. The Committee requisitioned funds, supplies and arms, issuing receipts in its own name. That same day (25 July 1877), in London, the German-Jew Karl Marx - on reading trans-Atlantic telegraphic reports from America - hailed the events as the "first explosion against the Civil War. . . it will naturally again be suppressed, but can very well form the point of origin of an earnest workers' party. . . . . . A nice sauce is being stirred over there, and the transfer of the International to the United States may obtain very remarkable post festum opportunities ." (Marx had earlier hailed Irish revolts and the American Civil War, in which his followers were active in New York City, St. Louis, etc., as the beginning of the World Revolution.)

With the press shrieking against the "Rule of the Rabble" and comparing it to the recent bloody Paris Commune revolt in France, U.S. President Hayes decided on federal intervention. Six companies of troops were dispatched by train from Indian fighting in the West to St. Louis, via Kansas. They were temporarily halted by railway strikers in Kansas City and in Sedalia, Missouri. 26th day of July (Thursday): three companies of infantry and a boxcar of arms entered St. Louis and joined the vigilante Committee of Public Safety. When workers led a mass protest rally in the streets, the frightened Executive Committee of trade unionists and the Marxists of the WMP counseled surrender and disassociated themselves from the mob. 27th of July (Fri.): two more companies of troops arrived with another load of arms.

The businessmen's militia attacked a mass-rally of workers and then arrested seventy-five leaders of the WMP at their headquarters, who, after a protest attack by enraged workers, had just finished officially denouncing the workers' rally. On the 28th of July (Saturday), federal troops occupied East St. Louis, breaking the strike - although scattered resistance occurred for another week. The strike had meantime leapfrogged west along the rail and telegraph lines, though Denver and Salt Lake city of San Francisco, California on the Pacific Ocean. It had now become a radical White racist struggle against Chinese scab labor and the White Capitalists importing cheap Chinese coolie slaves. Radical White Racists Chinese in California numbered 100,000 by 1870, brought in by large companies to work on the railroads and in gold-mining operations. Working at substandard rates and living in filthy hovels and on garbage for food, the Chinese coolies caused the mass lay-offs of, not only White workers, but also Hispanics. Racial animosity arose as early as the first Gold Rush in the 1850's. (The California-Mexican bandit Joaquin Murrieta specialized in the mass murder of Chinese, along with selective Whites, as would Pancho Villa later in Northern Mexico). A U.S. treaty signed with China in 1868 assured the full right of Chinese to enter the United States. In 1870, White labor demonstrations against Chinese scabs erupted across California. In 1871, Whites in Los Angeles invaded Chinatown, sacked their quarters and killed a score of Chinese. White miners ousted Chinese from the work-camps at French Canal and Nevada City. Several Chinese were lynched. The nationwide "Slump" struck California in 1873. Whites were mass fired and replaced by Chinese. By 1877, over 16,000 White workers were unemployed in San Francisco alone. Between 1873-1877, capitalists brought in another 70,000 Chinese. The Chinese scabs dominated railroad construction, mining, boot and shoe manufacture, cigar making and broom fashioning. As a White capitalist said: "All I want is muscle power. I don't care if it's Chinese, White, horse or mule." July-August 1877: White workers erupted in anti-Chinese riots. In San Francisco, White workers set fire to the Chinese coolie quarters and a lumber yard near the Pacific Mail dock (where Chinese off-landed.) Five were killed and scores wounded by revolver shots. An employer's vigilante was shot to death, and one rioter was killed while slashing a fire hose. White rioters then shot two police and injured three with stones. A Chinese criminal gang, The Tong, rioted in Chinatown.

In September 1877, Irishman Dennis Kearney spoke to a mob of White workers across from San Francisco's City Hall. Kearney shouted, "The Chinese Must Go!" and demanded jobs and increased wages for Whites. On 21 September 1877, Kearney and his comrades organized a western branch of the WMP - the Workingmen's Party of California. Their platform demanded the exclusion of all Chinese; fair treatment for Whites; the reform of banking practices; the granting of State-land only to farmers and settlers and not to the railroads and real estate speculators; the break-up of the Central Pacific R.R. and other monopolies and trusts; heavy taxation of large corporations; an eight-hour day; and universal education with an emphasis on vocational training.

The 23rd of September 1877, Kearney declared to a crowd that he meant to "wrest government from the hands of the rich and place it in the hands of the people," and to "rid the country of cheap Chinese labor."

On October 29, 1877, a large mob of White workers rallied on Nob Hill, home of the rich in San Francisco. Bonfires were lit across from the mansion of George Crocker, chief of the Oriental and Occidental Steamship Line, which specialized in bring Chinese to San Francisco. Kearney shouted that the problem could be solved by a little "judicious hanging" of "robber-capitalists". The Chinese he described as "leprous, rat-eating Chinese slaves." A week later, Kearney and five aides were arrested and jailed on charges of incitement to riot. Three weeks later public pressure caused the charges to be dropped and the White men freed. The White workers celebrated in a mass rally on Thanksgiving Day, marching through San Francisco, 10,000 strong.

In January 1878, a California state convention of the Workingmen's Party convened and called for the State Government to hold a State Constitutional Convention and incorporate the Workingmen's Party platform into California's basic laws. A torchlight parade wound through San Francisco. On 10 January 1878, Kearney called for support not only at the "ballot box, but at the bullet box, if necessary." On the 14th of January, Kearney declared that the Chinese must be ousted, "if it takes the life of every White Man in California." In late January at a rally outside City Hall, Kearney threatened to lead his followers to "blow up the Pacific Steamships' steamers and docks" and to invade the Chinese quarters with firearms and "infernal machines" (bombs).

William T. Coleman, a prominent merchant, financed 6,000 vigilantes to halt Kearney until federal forces arrived. The U.S. navy then landed man-of-war in San Francisco to protect the Government mail docks (as well as the nearby steamship docks for off-loading Chinese slaves purchased from China merchants). Kearney was again arrested and jailed, although quickly released after public outrage. The bought California legislature passed a state law making it a felony to incite or commit acts of violence against persons or property. Back amongst his White fellow workers, Kearney began to use a code-language at public rallies. For instance, the term "Serve the Chinamen coffee and doughnuts" meant to attack the Chinese quarters with incendiaries and firearms. In the 1878 election, the Workingmen's Party elected the mayors of San Francisco, Oakland, and Sacramento, a number of judges, and one-third of the delegates to a State constitutional Convention. At the State Constitutional Convention, the workingmen's delegates failed to win the economic demands of the White working class, but did succeed in reducing the number of Chinese allowed employment. (The impoverished California wheat-farm Grangers had meantime outlived the grain robberies of Jew wheat-speculator, Isaac Friedland in San Francisco).

Meanwhile in the East, the new "Greenback Party." had been organized by the radical farmer Grangers of the Mid-West, their Independent parties, and the Labor Reformers (the National Labor Union).The "National Greenback Party" ran in the 1878 mid-term State and Congressional elections on a platform of reduced work hours; the abolition of contract alien and convict labor; controlled immigration; banking reform; the issue of government fiat money to eliminate the privileged classes; silver coinage; the sale of public land only to actual settlers; the control of railroad and warehouse rates; the establishment of a government labor bureau; and the reform of the civil service. The National Greenback Party garnered one million votes in State elections, two-thirds of these from the Midwest. Fourteen U.S. Congressmen were elected, and many state legislators. A strong showing also occurred in the South, with 22% of the vote in Mississippi, 10% in Tennessee, and two members elected to the State Legislature in Georgia. In West Virginia, 18 State legislators were elected.

In Arkansas, a fusion with the Republicans seated seven of the latter and seven Greenbackers. Back in California, a smear campaign by the Capitalist press and the Churches - Protestant and Catholic - accused Kearney of taking a bribe from the Railroads and of being an un-Christian atheist. Kearney was ousted from Chairmanship of the WMP for a brief period, but soon reinstated.

In late 1878, the U.S. Congress passed a bill to exclude Chinese from the United States. President Hayes vetoed the bill. Irishman Kearney denounced Hayes, saying that Andy Jackson's old clothes stuffed with rags would make a better President. Agitation continued. The Knights of Labor - a radical union not only of trades and industrial workers, but also of "popular assemblies of the people" - adopted a tough racialist stance in its Western branches, agitating against the "Mongolization" of America and the "Asiatic plague" threatening White "citizen labor." In 1880, White rioters in Denver, Colorado sacked the Chinese quarters, beating and killing Chinese. That year, lame-duck President Hayes negotiated a treaty with China that allowed the United States minor controls over Chinese immigration, but no right to prohibit it (American money-making in China was too important).

In 1882, Congress passed a Chinese Exclusion Act over the veto of new President Cheater Arthur (who became Chief Executive after the assassination of President Garfield). The California WMP was torn by faction-fights; Kearney quit in 1881 (going on to become a businessman); the party collapsed in 1882 after Chinese immigration was banned for ten years by the U.S. Government and the naturalization of Chinese prohibited.

But the scab-Chinese already in the U.S. continued to be a serious problem. in 1885, twenty-eight Chinese were killed in Rock Spring, Wyoming, and Whites in Tacoma, Washington burnt down the Chinese quarters. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1888 was reluctantly accepted by the faltering Chinese government in 1894 for another ten years (renewals continued until 1924, when national quota systems were adopted). It had a not stopped smuggling of Chinese aliens. in 1941, Chinese received quotas and citizenship. Anti-Chinese agitation also occurred on the West Coast of Canada, led by the Knights of Labor. Chinese were being shipped into British Columbia as contract slaves to work on the railroads and in the mines. When Chinese intruded into lumbering and port jobs, the White workers of Vancouver exploded. In January 1887, a mob attacked the Chinese work-camp by dark, driving scores of Chinamen over a twenty foot cliff into the bay below. The next day, Chinatown was raided by White workers who tied Chinese together by their pigtails and herded the lots into a steamship bound for the provincial capital of Victoria on Vancouver Island (opposite from Seattle, Washington). Special constables escorted the Chinese back under armed protection. Riots also occurred against Japanese and East Indian Hindus in 1907. The Dominion of Canada finally began to halt open immigration after a boatload of turbaned Sikhs tried to steam ashore in 1914. But, as in the United States, this would not last.

The White struggle ultimately failed because although colored races were temporarily controlled, the White Capitalist race-traitors were still left to run the United States of America. Now, as stated in the basic law of this land, the Declaration of Independence of 1776, it is not only the right but the God-given duty of the White populace to "alter or abolish" the present "Tyrannical" government and to institute "new Guards" for our "future Security" against legal and armed repression, economic exploitation, and the murderous attacks of non-white "Savages".

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